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Wednesday, December 31, 2014

A Warm Welcome

As it is the last day of 2014, everyone of you must be happy and ready to welcome the new year warmly.  Now, it’s a new era of your life.  Have you ever thought of new thoughts, new resolutions, new promises, new achievements, etc  to have a change in your routine life now?
Here are few things which you can start following from the beginning of this year to see  a great change in your academics and in your personality which boosts up your spirits.

Read the newspaper more frequently to improve your vocabulary and general knowledge

Stop procrastinating :
How often have you underestimated how much time it will take to get something done? Then, how sad are you when you don’t have the time to do your best. If you finish a project earlier than you thought you would, then consider yourself ahead.

Don’t do it all :
 It’s better to concentrate on a few things and excel in them than if you join every sport, activity and club that you can cram into your schedule.

 Keep a calendar :
 Deadlines creep up quickly. And the closer the date, the more you’ll feel the pressure. Most students don’t do their best under pressure. And colleges, scholarships, federal aid, and standardized testing services are not going to be sympathetic to any excuses you have about missing a deadline. If you miss a deadline, you miss an opportunity.

Take standardized tests early:
 You won’t know how high you can score until you take the test. Wait too long and you won’t have enough time to retake it. And many things can affect your test score on any given day, including the state of your health, and you can’t plan not to get the flu or food poisoning. Taking the test early will also allow time to take a test prep course if necessary.

Do your research :
Know what the choices are when it comes to colleges. This way you can avoid any could you, should you, ‘would you’ regrets later in life. Research could be as simple as visiting a school’s website.

Try something new :
 High school is a great time to spread your wings. It’s about new experiences and self-discovery. There’s no harm in calling up and asking if you have any doubt. Want to try a new sport or activity, go ahead and try it. This is a chance to start narrowing down your interests. You’ll never know what you like – or how good you are at something – until you try something

Stop doubting yourself.

If you doubt your own God-given talent and your own skills and abilities, you will only hold back the possibility of achieving the things you want to achieve. Start believing in yourself and in your potential to shine. 2015 is going to be a very fruitful year for you – just erase all of your doubts.

Wishing you a very happy and prosperous new year to fulfill all your dreams ahead....

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Inventions in Decemeber

Back in the old days, people were never aware of how things are going to be transformed and end up with technological modern life..!! If you look back how things were in December back then, the following inventions and transformations are surely a strong evidence of man’s intellect and curiosity.

On December 3rd, 1621 Galileo perfected his invention of the telescope .
On December 10th,1896 Alfred Nobel died. The Nobel Prize ceremony is held on this date.
On December 23rd, 1879 Thomas Edison patented a magneto-electric machine.
December 26th, 1933 Edwin Armstrong was granted a patent for a two-path FM radio .
On December 30th, 1851 Asa Griggs Candler was born. Candler was a businessman who bought Coca-Cola from the original inventor and made the soft drink famous.
In 1996, December 3rd, James and Jovee Coulter patented a glow in the dark glove

Today, in the history, i.e. on December 30th,  the following notable events took place which are a major reason to all the unique challenges faced ahead. 

1817 - On this day in history, coffee was first planted in Hawaii (Kona).
1887 – the invention of ironing board was done by  sarah boone.
1922 - The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was formed. 
1924 - On this day in history, Edwin Hubble announced the existence of other galactic systems.
1938 - The electronic television system was patented by V. K. Zworykin.
1953 - The first color TV sets went on sale for about $1,175.
1907 - Today in history, Abraham Mills' commission declared that Abner Doubleday invented baseball.

All these great inventions are just an outcome of persistent hard work and dedication. Hope you surely go by your dreams and definitely achieve them.

Monday, December 29, 2014

LR and RC circuits

L-R Series circuit ( inductor in series with resistor ) :

A resistor–inductor circuit (RL circuit) is an electric circuit composed of resistors and inductors driven by a voltage or current source. A first order RL circuit is composed of one resistor and one inductor and is the simplest type of RL circuit.

Using kirchoff’s voltage law
According to the law, the sum of voltages at junction is zero. The sum of the voltage due to the resistance as well as the inductance should be zero.
à voltage in resistor

à voltage in inductor

 time constant
 steady state current

  Transient curve for an LR series circuit:
R-C CIRCUIT ( Capacitor series with Resistor) :
A resistor–capacitor circuit (RC circuit) is an electric circuit composed  of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source.  A first order RC circuit is composed of one resistor and one capacitor and is the simplest type of RC circuit.
RC circuits can be used to filter a signal by blocking certain frequencies and passing others. 
Apply Kirchoff’s voltage law
 is time constant for an RC circuit.
 is maximum current in RC circuit.

In AC Circuit :

              Type of circuit
        Purely resistive circuit
                          Z = R
        Purely inductive circuit

        Purely capacitive circuit

               L-R Circuit

               L-C circuit

             L-C-R circuit

Saturday, December 27, 2014


      Carbenes are highly reactive molecule containing a divalent carbon atom.      
      Neutral, divalent, highly reactive in nature.
       They are highly unstable that’s why highly reactive in nature.
        Simplest carbene is .

      General preparation :
     Carbenes are related to carbanions through  elimination reaction

                                              Di-halo carbene 

         Hybridization of the divalent carbon may be as well as .

             hybrid carbine is of 2 types

                sp-hybrid carbine is always triplet.
The decreasing order of stability of different types of singlet carbenes is as follows:

Carbenes can exist in singlet as well as in triplet  state but
                                                              exists only in single state.

    Important points Regarding carbene Reaction:
    Mainly give two types of reactions

Important points about Carbene:
       Unusual carbene containing species.
       It has a carbon with a lone pair and an empty orbital. The empty orbital makes the carbon very    reactive
         is the simplest carbene (methylene)
       Obtained by heating diazo methane


    As carbene is for carbon nitrene is for nitrogen. It is analogues of carbene.
          There is possibility of two spin states for a nitrene depending on whether the two non bonding            electrons have their spins paired or parallel
           They are highly reactive because they are highly unstable and always form as a reaction        intermediate.


         In general, nitrene obeys Hund’s rule and ground state triplet with two degenerated sp-orbitals containing a single electron each. 

Friday, December 26, 2014

How to study effectively...??

Have been finding no any effective result, in spite of studying long hours these days?? Well, spending many hours of studying is not necessarily productive, but it is possible to gain better marks by studying more effectively rather than for many long hours…!!

Here are few things that you can follow easily to study more effectively..

  Ø  Identify what is really needed :
 Study assignment titles carefully. Work out exactly what is required for assignments. This saves time  in re-writing assignments later. Time spent in preparation is well spent.

  Ø  Work strategically :
  Set yourself clear goals and work towards these.

  Ø  Make the material meaningful :
  Looking for 'the meaning' or how things work, rather than focusing on remembering information.  Work with the material, looking at how it fits together and applies to different circumstances. If you  develop your understanding of the subject, it will help you to take in future material more easily.  This makes reading easier. It also improves your memory for the subject.

  Ø  Look for links :
  Be active in searching out links between different aspects of the program. Look also for links between what you are learning and the wider world. This helps to develop understanding and  memory.

  Ø  Work with others :
  Work with other students so that you share ideas and gain mutual support. You may be able to share some research tasks and clarify your lecture notes. Studying with others makes study more interesting, as you gain a different set of perspectives.

  Ø  Set yourself SMART-F targets :
  Targets should be:
  strategic: they assist you to achieve your goals
  measurable: you can tell when you have completed them
  achievable: you are likely to succeed in meeting them
  realistic: they fit the circumstances
  time-bound: you have a set time to meet
  flexible: you can adapt them if the circumstances change.

  Ø  Look for shortcuts :
  Look for reasonable shortcuts that do not compromise your studies.                                    
  For example: avoid unnecessary tasks such as writing notes out neatly.

  Ø  Use abbreviations in your notes :
     Write assignments onto a computer if possible, rather than writing them out by hand and then  typing  them up. Focus your notes around themes and questions rather than making long notes that    you do  not really need.

  Ø  Take care of yourself :

    Take rests when you are tired. Study takes longer and the brain is less effective when you are tired or stressed. Plan your time so that you get breaks. A change of scene stimulates the brain and helps creative thinking.

Wednesday, December 24, 2014


Grouping of cells


Eeq = 


If  S number of identical cells each of marking (E, r) are connected in series across an external resistor  R.




Out of these S cells if x number of cells are reversely connected then


If P number of identical cells each of marking (E, r) are connected in parallel across an external resistor R

For unidentical cells in parallel


Mixed Grouping:

Let S number of identical cells having marking (E, r) are connected in series in a row and there are P such rows are connected in parallel across an external resistor R. Then


This current I is maximum when  



 or .